Borckardt JJ, et al. - Using double-blind methodology, the physicians compared motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and prefrontal cortex tDCS to both sham and active-control (active electrodes over non-pain modulating brain areas) tDCS. They proposed that to reducing post-total knee arthroplasty (TKA) opioid requirements, anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex could be a reasonable approach. Further research in the area of post-operative cortical stimulation was required because of the unexpected finding that motor cortex failed to produce an opioid-sparing effect in this follow-up trial.
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