Results revealed that individual characteristics associated with help–seeking behavior were female gender, increasing age, higher education, living alone, and severe pain. High levels of stoicism were reported, indicating that participants were more likely to believe they had superior pain control and courage in the face of pain and were not willing to disclose their pain to others. These attitudes were significantly associated with lower levels of expressed need for treatment. Participants had moderate age–related beliefs about the origin of pain, but those who believed pain had an organic cause were more likely to seek help.
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