To investigate the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in multiple sclerosis (MS) aetiology, this nested case–control study was undertaken. Via crosslinkage of MS registries and Swedish biobanks, presymptomatically collected blood samples were obtained. This analysis involved serum samples from 670 pairs of matched cases and controls. Findings showed a reduced risk for MS in relation to cytomegalovirus seropositivity. The observed interactions between CMV seronegativity and Epstein–Barr virus and human herpesvirus 6A seropositivity further lend support to the protective role for CMV infection in MS aetiology.
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