Expression of bone-morphogenetic protein 2 and tumor necrosis factor α correlates with bone metastases in bladder urothelial carcinoma
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, 07/10/2012
Yang ZJ et al. – The results postulated that bone–morphogenetic protein (BMP)–2 can be responsible for the mechanism involved in triggering bone metastasis in bladder cancer (BCa). The correlation with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF–α) indicates that the interaction of the 2 factors may promote local invasion and distant metastasis, especially to bone.