Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Carbonic Anhydrase 9, and Angiogenin as Urinary Biomarkers for Bladder Cancer Detection

Urology, 03/15/2012

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could be a valuable addition to voided urine sample analysis for the detection of bladder cancer (BCa). Larger, prospective studies are needed to determine the clinical utility of urinary VEGF and angiogenin as biomarkers in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with BCa.

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