Tissue penetration of bipolar electrosurgical currents: Joule overheating beyond the surface layer
Head & Neck, 05/14/2012
Habermann W et al. – Joule heating is primarily responsible for unintended thermal damages. Severe damages can easily occur even in several millimeters distance from the forceps tips. Utmost caution is also advised at low power setting when current is applied repetitively.