Nair A et al. – Synovial fluid (SF) augments fibroblast–like synoviocytes (FLS) responses to TLR–2 and TLR–4 ligands. This effect was largely due to soluble CD14 (sCD14). The results demonstrate that sCD14 in the setting of osteoarthritis (OA) and meniscal injury sensitizes FLS to respond to inflammatory stimuli such as Toll–like receptor (TLR) ligands. [more...]
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