The persistence of cognitive deficits in remitted and unremitted ADHD: A case for the state-independence of response inhibition
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,  Clinical Article

McAuley T, et al. – Response inhibition, working memory, and response variability are possible endophenotypes of ADHD based on their association with the disorder and evidence of heritability. One of the critical although rarely studied criteria for a valid endophenotype is that it persists despite waxing and waning of the overt manifestations of the disorder, a criterion known as state–independence. This study examined whether these aspects of cognition exhibit state–independence in ADHD. Results demonstrate that response inhibition not only distinguishes ADHD children from their unaffected peers but is also state–independent, such that deficits remain present irrespective of changes in the disease phenotype. In other words, inhibitory deficits measured in childhood persist into adolescence even when the ADHD phenotype remits. These findings provide further evidence that the ability to stop prepotent actions is an endophenotype of ADHD.

Methods

  • One hundred and seventy-nine children diagnosed with ADHD in a rigorous baseline assessment were contacted for follow-up assessment in adolescence.
  • Of this sample, 130 (73%) were reascertained.
  • At follow-up, children previously diagnosed with ADHD were identified as remittent (n=24), persistent (n=64), or in partial remission (n=42) based on symptoms and impairment of the disorder.
  • Response inhibition, working memory, and response variability were assessed both in childhood (baseline) and adolescence (follow-up) and were compared with age-matched controls (40 children and 28 adolescents) seen at either time point.

Results

  • Relative to controls, ADHD children showed baseline deficits in response inhibition, working memory, and response variability.
  • Only the group difference in response inhibition remained significant in adolescence.
  • In general, cognitive performance among ADHD participants improved with age and did so regardless of changes in ADHD symptoms and impairment.
  • Within the ADHD group, however, cognitive performance in childhood and in adolescence did not differ amongst those with persistent, remittent, and partially remittent forms of the disorder.

Please login or register to follow this author.
Are you sure you want to Unfollow this Author?
► Click here to access PubMed, Publisher and related articles...
<< Previous Article | Next Article >>

Your Unread Messages in Psychiatry

See All >> Messages include industry-sponsored communications and special communications from MDLinx

Most Popular Psychiatry Articles

1 Atypical antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone and risk of acute major cardiovascular events in young and middle-aged adults: A nationwide register-based cohort study in Denmark CNS Drugs, June 18, 2014    Clinical Article

2 Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 15 antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: A multiple-treatments meta-analysis FOCUS, June 16, 2014    Evidence Based Medicine

3 Vitamin D supplementation for depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Psychosomatic Medicine, March 20, 2014    Evidence Based Medicine    Review Article    Clinical Article

4 Re-evaluating the role of antidepressants in cancer-related depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis General Hospital Psychiatry, June 4, 2014    Evidence Based Medicine

5 Does pharmacological treatment of ADHD in adults enhance parenting performance?: Results of a double-blind randomized trial CNS Drugs, June 12, 2014    Clinical Article

6 Association between C-reactive protein and depression: modulated by gender and mediated by body weight Psychiatry Research, June 19, 2014    Clinical Article

7 A comparison of the effects of hatha yoga and resistance exercise on mental health and well-being in sedentary adults: A pilot study Complementary Therapies in Medicine, June 20, 2014    Clinical Article

8 Attachment anxiety is related to epstein-barr virus latency Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, June 23, 2014    Clinical Article

9 Pretreatment brain states identify likely nonresponse to standard treatments for depression Biological Psychiatry, May 23, 2014    Clinical Article

10 Physical diseases among persons with obsessive compulsive symptoms and disorder: A general population study Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, June 13, 2014    Clinical Article

11 Efficacy of adjunctive aripiprazole in patients with major depressive disorder whose symptoms worsened with antidepressant monotherapy CNS Spectrums, May 30, 2014    Clinical Article

12 Drug treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behaviour: register based study BMJ, June 24, 2014    Evidence Based Medicine    Clinical Article

13 A randomized, double-blind evaluation of D-cycloserine or alprazolam combined with virtual reality exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans American Journal of Psychiatry, June 9, 2014    Clinical Article

14 A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- A meta-analysis of 31 studies Full Text BMC Psychiatry, May 20, 2014    Free full text    Evidence Based Medicine    Clinical Article

15 Predicting autism diagnosis by 7 years of age using parent report of infant social communication skills Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, June 10, 2014    Clinical Article

16 Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in bipolar disorder: A systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, June 2, 2014    Evidence Based Medicine    Review Article

17 Myofascial pain in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain , June 11, 2014    Clinical Article

18 Topiramate as an adjuvant treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial Journal of Affective Disorders, June 9, 2014    Clinical Article

19 Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism Full Text Molecular Psychiatry, June 25, 2014    Free full text    Clinical Article

20 Eveningness and insomnia: independent risk factors of nonremission in major depressive disorder SLEEP, May 7, 2014    Clinical Article

Indexed Journals in Psychiatry : Current Psychiatry, Bipolar Disorders, American Journal of Psychiatry, Addictionmore

Register now to view all the MDLinx contents (FREE)!

  • Stay current on the latest literature, research and clinical news
  • Get special communications and offers from MDLinx and our sponsors
  • Receive invitations to paid market research
View Samples and Register

Connect with us, stay current.

Receive the latest mecial news
updates for free via email

Sign up!

Subscribe to our free RSS feeds:

Get the latest news in your specialty automatically added to your newsreader or your personal My Yahoo!, Google, My MSN or My AOL page. Learn More

Close