Elevated Prefrontal Cortex {gamma}-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamate-Glutamine Levels in Schizophrenia Measured In Vivo With Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Full Text
JAMA Psychiatry,  Clinical Article

Kegeles LS et al. – To the authors' knowledge, this study presents the first γ–aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration measurements in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia, who showed elevations in both GABA and glutamate–glutamine (Glx) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex but not the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Medicated patients did not show these elevations, suggesting possible normalization of levels with antipsychotic medication. The Glx elevations agree with prior magnetic resonance spectroscopy literature, but GABA elevations were unexpected and suggest possible involvement of classes of interneurons not found to show impairments in postmortem studies.

Methods
  • Case-control study.
  • Inpatient psychiatric research unit and associated outpatient clinic.
  • Sixteen unmedicated patients with schizophrenia, 16 medicated patients, and 22 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, parental socioeconomic status, and cigarette smoking.
  • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a 3-T system and the J-edited spin-echo difference method.
  • The GABA and Glx levels were measured in the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex and normalized to the simultaneously acquired water signal.
  • Working memory performance was assessed in all subjects.

Results
  • In the medial prefrontal cortex region, 30% elevations were found in GABA (P = .02) and Glx (P = .03) levels in unmedicated patients compared with controls.
  • There were no alterations in the medicated patients or in either group in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
  • Both regions showed correlations between GABA and Glx levels in patients and controls.
  • No correlations with working memory performance were found.

Please login or register to follow this author.
Are you sure you want to Unfollow this Author?
► Click here to access Full Text, PubMed, Publisher and related articles...
<< Previous Article | Next Article >>

Your Unread Messages in Psychiatry

See All >> Messages include industry-sponsored communications and special communications from MDLinx

Most Popular Psychiatry Articles

1 Zolpidem and the risk of Parkinson's disease: A nationwide population-based study Journal of Psychiatric Research, August 1, 2014    Clinical Article

2 Antidepressants and the risk of hyponatraemia: A class-by-class review of the literature Psychosomatics, September 15, 2014    Review Article

3 Comparison of metabolic effects of aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone after 12 weeks of treatment in first treated episode of psychosis Schizophrenia Research, September 24, 2014    Clinical Article

4 Guanfacine for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis European Neuropsychopharmacology, September 2, 2014    Evidence Based Medicine    Review Article

5 Prazosin in the treatment of PTSD Journal of Psychiatric Practice, July 25, 2014    Review Article

6 Association between early temperament and depression at 18 years Depression and Anxiety, August 18, 2014    Clinical Article

7 The effect of bupropion XL and escitalopram on memory and functional outcomes in adults with major depressive disorder: Results from a randomized controlled trial Psychiatry Research, August 5, 2014    Clinical Article

8 Adipokines as emerging depression biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis Journal of Psychiatric Research, September 18, 2014    Evidence Based Medicine    Clinical Article

9 Latent inhibition in ADHD adults on and off medication: A preliminary study Journal of Attention Disorders, September 10, 2014    Clinical Article

10 Curcumin for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study Journal of Affective Disorders, July 17, 2014    Clinical Article

11 Adipokines as emerging depression biomarkers: A systematic review and meta-analysis Journal of Psychiatric Research, September 3, 2014    Evidence Based Medicine    Clinical Article

12 Third-wave cognitive therapy versus mentalisation-based treatment for major depressive disorder: a randomised clinical trial BMJ Open, September 9, 2014    Clinical Article

13 The importance of cytokines and autoantibodies in depression Autoimmunity Reviews, September 25, 2014    Review Article

14 Risk of diabetes in children and adolescents exposed to antipsychotics: A nationwide 12-year case-control study Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, September 4, 2014    Clinical Article

15 Increased cortisol awakening response was associated with time to recurrence of major depressive disorder Psychoneuroendocrinology, August 22, 2014    Clinical Article

16 Association between autoimmune thyroiditis and depressive disorder in psychiatric outpatients European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, September 17, 2014    Clinical Article

17 Oral contraceptive use and psychiatric disorders in a nationally representative sample of women Archives of Women's Mental Health, August 29, 2014    Clinical Article

18 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A potential diagnostic biomarker for major depression Journal of Psychiatric Research, September 19, 2014    Clinical Article

19 Efficacy of acupuncture in reducing preoperative anxiety: a meta-analysis Full Text Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , September 5, 2014    Free full text    Evidence Based Medicine    Review Article

20 Metacognitions and thought control strategies in unipolar major depression: A comparison of currently depressed, previously depressed, and never-depressed individuals Cognitive Therapy and Research, September 5, 2014    Clinical Article

Indexed Journals in Psychiatry : Current Psychiatry, Bipolar Disorders, American Journal of Psychiatry, Addictionmore

Register now to view all the MDLinx contents (FREE)!

  • Stay current on the latest literature, research and clinical news
  • Get special communications and offers from MDLinx and our sponsors
  • Receive invitations to paid market research
View Samples and Register

Connect with us, stay current.

Receive the latest mecial news
updates for free via email

Sign up!

Subscribe to our free RSS feeds:

Get the latest news in your specialty automatically added to your newsreader or your personal My Yahoo!, Google, My MSN or My AOL page. Learn More

Close