Height and torsional stiffness are most sensitive to annular injury in large animal intervertebral discs
The Spine Journal, 06/15/2012
Michalek AJ et al. – The findings suggest that loss of disc height, torsional stiffness, and NP fluid pressurization are the immediate results of acute annular injury and are therefore those properties that intervertebral disc repair strategies must strive to restore or maintain. The lack of change in bending stiffness and moment under compression suggests that acute annular tears alone are not sufficient to induce off–axis motion and instability.