Occurrence of phrenic nerve stimulation in cardiac resynchronization therapy patients: the role of left ventricular lead type and placement site
EP Europace, 08/08/2012
Biffi M et al. – Phrenic nerve stimulation occurred in 13% of patients undergoing left ventricular (LV) lead placement and was more common at mid–lateral/posterior, and LV apical sites. Most cases of phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) were mitigated via electrical reprogramming, without the need for invasive intervention.