Race-ethnic, family income, and education differentials in nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children and adolescents: NHANES 2003–2006
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 08/08/2012
Kant AK et al. – Race–ethnicity, but not family income or education, was a strong independent predictor of serum nutrient concentrations and dietary micronutrient intakes in US children and adolescents.Methods
- The authors used data from the NHANES 2003–2006 to examine serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B–6, and B–12; serum concentrations of folate, carotenoids, and lipids; and dietary intakes of corresponding nutrients for 2–19–y–old children (n = 2700–7500).
- Multiple covariate–adjusted regression methods were used to examine the independent and joint associations of race–ethnicity, family income, and education with biomarker status.
- Non–Hispanic blacks had lower mean serum concentrations of vitamins A, B–6, and E and α–carotene than did non–Hispanic whites.
- Both non–Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans had higher mean serum vitamin C, β–cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin but lower folate and vitamin D concentrations compared with non–Hispanic whites.
- In comparison with non–Hispanic whites, non–Hispanic blacks were less likely to have low serum HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides.
- Family income and education predicted few biomarker or dietary outcomes, and the observed associations were weak.
- Moreover, modification of race–ethnic differentials by income or education (or vice versa) was noted for very few biomarkers.