Use of Combined Transmucosal Fentanyl, Nitrous Oxide, and Hematoma Block for Fracture Reduction in a Pediatric Emergency Department
Pediatric Emergency Care, 07/11/2012
Jimenez A et al. – The association of nitrous oxide (NO), hematoma block (HB), and transmucosal fentanyl (TMF) in the reduction of radioulnar fractures in pediatric emergency department (PED) improves pain control compared with the NO+HB combination.Methods
- A retrospective, analytical observational study examining the cases of radioulnar fracture reduction in PED from 2007 to 2009 in children from 4 to 15years old.
- The cases were divided into 2 groups: those in which only NO+HB was used and those in which TMF was combined with NO+HB.
- The pain perceived by the child, the doctor, and the nurse was studied during the procedure with 0– to 10–point scales (10 being severe pain).
- Satisfaction of the medical professionals, duration of the procedure, and the adverse effects that appeared were also studied.
- Eighty–one children were included.
- Sixty–four children (79%) received NO+TMF+HB, and 17 children (21%) received NO+HB only.
- The pain perceived by the child during the procedure in the group receiving NO+TMF+HB was 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–3.1) compared with 3.9 (95% CI, 2.3–5.5) in the NO+HB group (P=0.035), the pain perceived by the doctor was 2.6 (95% CI, 2–3.2) compared with 4 (95% CI, 1.6–4), and by the nurse was 2.7 (95% CI, 2–3.3) compared with 3.9 (95% CI, 2.3–5.5), respectively.
- Adverse events appeared in 15.3% of the NO+TMF+HB group and in 40% of the NO+HB group.