Biomechanical analysis of second-generation headless compression screws
Assari S et al. – All second generation Headless Compression Screws (SG–HCS) demonstrated greater biomechanical characteristics than the first generation Herbert–Whipple screw. The Mini–Acutrak 2 with a variable pitch design generated the maximum compression force and showed the most reliability and sustainability. Screws with independently rotating trailing heads (Twinfix and Kompressor Mini) demonstrated loss of compression with extra turns. The increase of fastening torque due to over–fastening and loss of compression at the same time in some screw designs, demonstrated how the fastening torque (applied by the surgeon) can be a misleading measure of the compression force. Application of SG–HCS in osteoporotic bone without pre–drilling can slightly increase the compression force.Methods
- Five HCS including four second generation (Mini–Acutrak 2 (Acumed), Twinfix (Stryker), Kompressor Mini (Integra), HCS 3.0 (Synthes)) and one first generation (Herbert–Whipple) were studied.
- Polyurethane foam blocks that represented osteoporotic cancellous bone (0.16g/cc) with a simulated transverse fracture at the waist were utilized and five screws of each brand were tested for the generated compression force and fastening torque during insertion with and without pre–drilling.
- The generated compression force was highest for Mini–Acutrak 2 (45.41±0.88N) and lowest for Herbert–Whipple (13.44±2.35N) and forces of Twinfix, Kompressor Mini, HCS 3.0 were in between in descending order.
- The compression force of SG–HCS increased slightly without pre–drilling but it was not statistically significant while the fastening torque increased significantly.
- Slight over–fastening beyond the recommended stage significantly reduced the compression force in Twinfix and Kompressor and had no or moderate effect in other screws.