Yoo JY et al. – The authors found that E–cadherin expression was proportional to pioglitazone exposure time. Interestingly, pioglitazone pretreatment before cancer cell inoculation prevented loss of E–cadherin expression and reduced expression of MMP9 and fibronectin, compared with the control group. E–cadherin expression could be a predictor of brain metastasis in patients with non–small–cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preventive treatment with pioglitazone may be useful for modulating E–cadherin expression.