Sex-related differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-hypertensive drugs
Hypertension Research,

Ueno K et al. – Sex–related disparities in pharmacokinetics may not necessarily correspond to clinically significant differences in therapeutic response. There are still large gaps in the knowledge of sex–specific differences in clinical pharmacology and much more research is needed.

Methods
  • Some representative sex–specific differences in absorption and transporters (that is, P–glycoprotein (P–gp)), metabolic processes (that is, those that involve cytochrome P450 (CYP)), clearance (Cl) processes (for example, renal excretion or other pharmacokinetic parameters) and involvement of sex hormones (that is, estrogen and testosterone) in the regulation of some metabolic enzymes are introduced for each of the following categories of anti–hypertensive drugs: calcium–channel blockers, angiotensin–receptor blockers and angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretic agents, and β–adrenergic–receptor blockers (β–blockers).

Results
  • In many cases, female sex is a risk factor for adverse effects or attenuated clinical responses because of lower Cl, smaller distribution volumes, higher activity of some metabolic enzymes (especially hepatic CYP3A4), or presence of sex hormones.
  • Additionally, some of these factors often co–contribute to the sex–specific differences.
  • Furthermore, pharmacodynamic variability among individuals is often larger than pharmacokinetic variability; in other words, it could become a predominant determinant of interindividual differences in therapeutic responses.
  • Thus, studies of sex–specific differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics should be conducted.

Please login or register to follow this author.
► Click here to access PubMed, Publisher and related articles...
<< Previous Article | Next Article >>

Your Unread Messages in Pharmacy

See All >> Messages include industry-sponsored communications and special communications from MDLinx

Most Popular Pharmacy Articles

1 New drug could make vaccines more effective in the elderly University of Oxford News, November 14, 2014

2 FDA approves new type of sleep drug, Belsomra Full Text FDA Press Announcements, August 14, 2014    Free full text

3 Antibiotic developed 50 years ago may be the key to fighting 'superbugs' University at Buffalo Health and Medicine News, June 19, 2014

4 One injection stops diabetes in its tracks Salk Institute News, July 18, 2014

5 'Unsung' cells double the benefits of a new osteoporosis drug Johns Hopkins Medicine, October 7, 2014

6 New research indicates statin drugs must be taken properly Michigan State University Health News, July 22, 2014

7 Statins reverse learning disabilities caused by genetic disorder UCLA Health System, November 18, 2014

8 UCLA researchers find that drug used for another disease slows progression of Parkinson's UCLA Health System, October 10, 2014

9 Opioid overdose cause for over 100,000 emergency department visits in 2010 Lifespan, November 12, 2014

10 Semen directly impairs effectiveness of microbicides that target HIV Gladstone Institutes News, November 14, 2014

11 Duke team brings life-saving function to ketchup packets Duke University Health & Medicine News, July 3, 2014

12 A new pathway discovered regulating autoimmune diseases Brigham and Women's Hospital, October 9, 2014

13 Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial Phytotherapy Research, October 13, 2014    Clinical Article

14 Daily aspirin use and prostate cancer–specific mortality in a large cohort of men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer Journal of Clinical Oncology, October 24, 2014    Clinical Article

15 High-dose dual therapy is superior to standard first-line or rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology , November 24, 2014    Clinical Article

16 Ripasudil: first global approval Drugs, November 21, 2014    Clinical Article

17 Effect of prasugrel in patients with asthma: results of PRINA,a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, November 25, 2014

18 Nebivolol, but not metoprolol, lowers blood pressure in nitric oxide–sensitive human hypertension Hypertension, November 24, 2014    Clinical Article

19 Magnesium should be given to all children presenting to hospital with acute severe asthma Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, October 15, 2014    Clinical Article

20 Randomized, double-blind trial of anidulafungin versus fluconazole for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in high-risk liver transplant recipients American Journal of Transplantation, November 17, 2014    Clinical Article

Indexed Journals in Pharmacy: Expert Opinion in Pharmacotherapy, Formulary, U.S.Pharmacistmore