Longitudinal Links Between Spanking and Childrens Externalizing Behaviors in a National Sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian American Families

Child Development, 03/23/2012

While race/ethnic differences were observed in the frequency of spanking, no differences were found in the associations of spanking and externalizing over time: Early spanking predicted increases in children’s externalizing while early child externalizing elicited more spanking over time across all race/ethnic groups.

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