Beyond appendicitis: evaluation and surgical treatment of pediatric acute abdominal pain

Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 05/16/2012

Saito JM – Presenting symptoms and physical examination findings can narrow the number of potential diagnoses in pediatric acute abdominal pain and thereby guide diagnostic imaging selection. Abdominal/pelvic ultrasound, rather than computed tomography scan, is the preferred modality for initial evaluation of many potential causes of pediatric abdominal pain.

Results

  • Intussusception and intestinal malrotation are potentially serious causes of intestinal obstruction, which are best evaluated by ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal series, respectively.
  • Ultrasound has diagnostic importance in the evaluation of multiple diseases, including appendicitis, by potentially decreasing the need for inpatient observation, cholecystitis and complications of gall stones such as pancreatitis, and ovarian diseases.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease should be considered in evaluation of a teenage girl with lower abdominal pain.
  • Less common causes of acute abdominal pain include ingested foreign bodies, infected congenital anomalies, and perforated peptic ulcer disease.

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