Changes in passive range of motion and development of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) in the professional pitching shoulder between spring training in two consecutive years
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 08/01/2012
Shanley E et al. – Range of motion (ROM) was significantly altered between seasons of pitching. These changes likely resulted from soft tissue adaptations because they accounted for humeral retrotorsion. Pitchers who developed GIRD displayed a 7° increase in retrotorsion on the dominant shoulder. Changes in the pitching shoulder over time accounting for humeral retrotorsion may suggest pitching ROM is transient and should be monitored.