Enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferate-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) in advanced prostate cancer
Anticancer Research, 07/27/2012
Rogenhofer S et al. – This study provides the basis for applying PPAR-gamma ligands clinically in treatment of APC.Methods
- A total of 84 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), 84 low risk prostate cancer (LPC) and 64 advanced disease (APC) cases were sampled on a tissue microarray (TMA) and stained for retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-alpha, retionoid X receptor (RXR)-alpha, liver X receptor (LXR)-alpha, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and proliferate-activated receptor gamma (PPAR)-gamma and the (pro)-inflammatory molecules cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and inducible Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunohistochemically. ods
- PPAR-gamma expression in APC tissues was found to be significantly higher than that in LPC and BPH specimens (p<0.001).
- In contrast, RXR-a expression was significantly lower (p<0.001).
- COX2 staining demonstrated a trend towards overexpression in APC (p=0.025).
- No significant differences were found for RAR-alpha, iNOS and TNF-alpha expression.
- Staining of FXR and LXR was seen diffusely in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus, preventing sufficient evaluation by definition.