Galectin-1 promotes lung cancer progression and chemoresistance by upregulating p38 MAPK, ERK, and cyclooxygenase-2
Clinical Cancer Research, 07/06/2012
Chung L-Y et al. – p38 MAPK, ERK, and COX-2 activation are novel mediators for the galectin-1–promoted tumor progression and chemoresistance in lung cancer. Galectin-1 may be an innovative target for combined modality therapy for lung cancer.Methods
- The role of galectin-1 in lung cancer progression was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of galectin-1 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.
- To explore novel molecular mechanisms underlying galectin-1–mediated tumor progression, we analyzed gene expression profiles and signaling pathways using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting.
- A tissue microarray containing samples from patients with lung cancer was used to examine the expression of galectin-1 in lung cancer.
- We found overexpression of galectin-1 in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines.
- Suppression of endogenous galectin-1 in lung adenocarcinoma resulted in reduction of the cell migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor growth in mice.
- In particular, COX-2 was downregulated in galectin-1–knockdown cells.
- The decreased tumor invasion and anchorage-independent growth abilities were rescued after reexpression of COX-2 in galectin-1–knockdown cells.
- Furthermore, we found that TGF-beta1 promoted COX-2 expression through galectin-1 interaction with Ras and subsequent activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), and NF-kappaB pathway.
- Galectin-1 knockdown sensitized lung cancer cells to platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin). In addition, galectin-1 and COX-2 expression was correlated with the progression of lung adenocarcinoma, and high clinical relevance of both proteins was evidenced (n = 47).