Maternal depression and prenatal exposure to methamphetamine: neurodevelopmental findings from the infant development, environment, and lifestyle (ideal) study
Depression and Anxiety, 05/10/2012Smith LM et al.
Maternal depression is associated with neurodevelopmental patterns of increased stress and decreased quality of movement, suggesting maternal depression influences neurodevelopment in infants as young as 1 month.
Four hundred twelve mother–infant pairs were enrolled (MA = 204) and only biological mothers with custody of their child were included in the current analysis.
At the 1-month visit (n = 126 MA-exposed; n = 193 MA-unexposed), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was administered, and the NNNS was administered to the infant.
Exposure was identified by self-report and/or gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in newborn meconium.
Unexposed subjects were matched, denied amphetamine use, and had negative meconium screens.
General Linear Models tested the effects of maternal depression and prenatal MA exposure on NNNS, with significance accepted at P < .05.
The MA group had an increased incidence of depression-positive diagnosis and increased depression scores on the BDI-II.
After adjusting for covariates, MA exposure was associated with increased arousal and handling scores, and a decreased ability to self-regulate.
Maternal depression was associated with higher autonomic stress and poorer quality of movement.
No additional differences were observed in infants whose mothers were both depressed and used MA during pregnancy.
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