Nutritional factors and hypospadias risks
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 05/18/2012
Carmichael SL et al. – This large study does not support an association of a vegetarian diet or worse diet quality with hypospadias.Methods
- The authors examined whether hypospadias was associated with several aspects of the diet, including intake of animal products, intake of several nutrients and food groups related to a vegetarian diet and oestrogen metabolism, and diet quality.
- The study included deliveries from 1997 to 2005 that were part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
- Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire during maternal telephone interviews, and two diet quality indices were developed based on existing indices.
- Analyses included 1250 cases with second- or third-degree hypospadias (urethra opened at the penile shaft, scrotum or perineum) and 3118 male, liveborn, non-malformed controls.
- All odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were estimated from logistic regression models that included several potential confounders, including energy intake.