Forbess LJ et al. – Tophi can present in unexpected locations, even as the first sign of gout, and vigilance is required when unusual symptoms or signs occur in a patient with gout.Methods
- The relevant English literature of unusual gout manifestations was searched using the keywords gout, toph*, monosodium urate, uric acid, unusual, and rare.
- Well–described case reports, case series, and review articles were evaluated and included, if relevant, in the literature review.
- Review of the literature revealed many unusual manifestations of gouty tophi involving the head and neck, skin, viscera, bones, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and axial skeleton.
- Transplant recipients, women, and elderly people are particularly susceptible to developing tophi.
- Furthermore, gout can cause diagnostic dilemmas, as it can be a great mimicker of and can coexist with infection, malignancy, and other connective tissue diseases.
- Imaging modalities can help detect tophi in atypical locations.