Paliwal R et al. - The present review provides complete insight to the research that has been carried out for the development of heparin as oral anticoagulant.
- Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) are first choices of clinicians among available anticoagulants.
- Currently, these agents are administered either parenterally or subcutaneously, which reduces patient compliance and acceptability.
- Oral heparin may serve as an alternative to both parenteral heparin as well as presently available oral anticoagulants such as warfarin.
- This review focuses mainly upon recent perspectives in the development of heparin as an oral anticoagulant.
- The possibility of its success with special emphasis to nanotechnological approaches has been elaborated.
- Important strategies such as the use of penetration enhancers, the development of lipid conjugates of heparin, and the incorporation of heparin in polymeric matrix systems have been discussed.
- Additionally, introductory information on biological activities, physiochemical aspects, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of heparin is summarized.
- A brief comparison of UFH and LMWH is also included for reader's benefit.
- Informative discussion on clinical trials with the successes and limitations of oral heparin formulations is also presented.