Efficacy of immunoglobulin plus prednisolone for prevention of coronary artery abnormalities in severe Kawasaki disease (RAISE study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial
The Lancet,  Clinical Article

Kobayashi T et al. - Addition of prednisolone to the standard regimen of intravenous immunoglobulin improves coronary artery outcomes in patients with severe Kawasaki disease in Japan.

Methods
  • The authors did a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial at 74 hospitals in Japan between Sept 29, 2008, and Dec 2, 2010.
  • Patients with severe Kawasaki disease were randomly assigned by a minimisation method to receive either intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg for 24 h and aspirin 30 mg/kg per day) or intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone (the same intravenous immunoglobulin regimen as the intravenous immunoglobulin group plus prednisolone 2 mg/kg per day given over 15 days after concentrations of C-reactive protein normalised).
  • Patients and treating physicians were unmasked to group allocation.
  • The primary endpoint was incidence of coronary artery abnormalities during the study period.
  • Analysis was by intention to treat.
  • The authors randomly assigned 125 patients to the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group and 123 to the intravenous immunoglobulin group.

Results
  • Incidence of coronary artery abnormalities was significantly lower in the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group than in the intravenous immunoglobulin group during the study period (four patients [3%] vs 28 patients [23%]; risk difference 0.20, 95% CI 0.12—0.28, p<0.0001).
  • Serious adverse events were similar between both groups: two patients had high total cholesterol and one neutropenia in the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group, and one had high total cholesterol and another non-occlusive thrombus in the intravenous immunoglobulin group.

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