Safety of Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) Thrombolysis Based on CT Localization of External Ventricular Drain (EVD) Fenestrations and Analysis of EVD Tract Hemorrhage
Neurocritical Care , 05/02/2012
Jackson DA et al. – Intraventricular recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt–PA) appears to be relatively safe especially when all EVD fenestrations are within the ventricle and reduces IVH burden similar to other studies. The authors describe a CT–based EVD tract hemorrhage grading scale to evaluate EVD tract hemorrhage before and after thrombolysis, and a bone–window technique to evaluate EVD fenestrations prior to IVH thrombolysis. Further research is needed evaluating these imaging techniques in regard to intraventricular thrombolytic safety and EVD tract hemorrhage.Methods
- A retrospective review was conducted for patients receiving intraventricular rt-PA for IVH from January 2004 to September 2009.
- Safety was assessed by the presence of EVD tract hemorrhage by CT at baseline after EVD placement, worsening hemorrhage after rt-PA, and CSF infection.
- IVH volumetrics were assessed by the Le Roux score and outcomes by Glasgow Outcome Scale and modified Rankin Scale.
- Twenty-seven patients received rt-PA for IVH.
- Median dose was 2mg (range 0.3–8) and a median of two doses (range 1–17) were given.
- Worsening EVD catheter tract hemorrhage after rt-PA was 46.7 %, with a significantly higher incidence of worsening tract hemorrhage seen with incorrectly placed EVDs (p = 0.04).
- IVH hematoma burden decreased by a median Le Roux score of 10 (range 3–16) prior to rt-PA to 4 (range 0–16) after rt-PA.
- There were no central nervous system bacterial infections.