Balance and Balance Self-Efficacy Are Associated With Activity and Participation After Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study in People With Chronic Stroke
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 05/29/2012Schmid AA et al.
Among people with chronic stroke, balance self–efficacy, not physical aspects of gait, was independently associated with activity and participation. While gait training continues to be important, this study indicates a need to further evaluate and address the psychological factors of balance and falls self–efficacy to obtain the best stroke recovery.
People (N=77) with stroke greater than 6 months ago were included in the study if they were referred to occupational or physical therapy for physical deficits as a result of the stroke, completed all stroke related inpatient rehabilitation, had residual functional disability, scored a ≥ 4 out of 6 on the short, 6–item Mini–Mental State Examination, and were between the ages of 50 and 85.
The authors measured activity and participation with the validated International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Measure of Participation and Activities.
Other variables included gait speed (10–meter walk), walking capacity (6–minute walk), balance (Berg Balance Scale), balance self–efficacy (Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale), and falls self–efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale).
Only balance self–efficacy was found to be independently associated with poststroke activity (β =–.430, P<.022, 95% confidence interval [CI], –.247 to –.021) and participation (β =–.439, P<.032, 95% CI, –.210 to –.010).
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