Detrimental role of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in neuromyelitis optica: clinical case and histological evidence

Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 05/03/2012

The authors report a patient whose first episode of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) may have been exacerbated by inadvertent administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G–CSF). Histological examination of brain and spinal cord samples from three other NMO patients revealed markedly increased expression of G–CSF in neurons located in and around the lesions, with little or no expression in multiple sclerosis lesions or normal white matter. Taken together, these cases support a detrimental role for G–CSF in NMO pathogenesis.

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