Neurocognitive Impairment in Adults With Moyamoya Disease Without Stroke
Cognitive impairment in moyamoya disease (MMD) can occur in the absence of ischemic stroke as manifested on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The authors performed detailed neuropsychological assessments in 30 adults with angiographically confirmed MMD without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of stroke.
Twenty patients (67%) exhibited small T2 hyperintensities in the cerebral subcortical white matter on brain MRI but no evidence of gray matter damage.
Significant cognitive impairment, defined as half of test scores ≥1 SD below the normal mean, was present in 7 patients (23%).
Executive functioning, mental efficiency, and word finding were the ability areas most frequently impaired, whereas memory was relatively intact.
Clinically significant emotional distress (depression and/or anxiety) was present in 11 patients (37%).
Comparable cognitive findings were also observed in the subset of 10 patients (33%) with completely normal static brain MRI.