Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 11/01/2011
Haines SR et al. – Topical agents may be useful as additional therapy for mild or moderate ptosis. Nonpharmacologic treatments include occlusive devices, prisms, eyelid supports, contact lenses, and (in long-standing, stable cases) strabismus surgery or eyelid elevation surgery.
Treatment of ocular MG is aimed at relieving the symptoms of ptosis and diplopia, as well as preventing the development of generalized MG symptoms.
Immune suppression with steroids is often the main therapy.
Steroid doses must be increased slowly because of a risk of precipitating myasthenic crisis.
After achieving the highest target dose, steroids are then slowly tapered down to the lowest effective dose.
Often, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine and neostigmine are also employed to help control symptoms.
When steroids are contraindicated, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be tried as the primary therapy.
Steroid-sparing agents such as azathioprine and mycophenolate may also have a role in treating ocular MG.
Other treatments for MG include plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, and other immunosuppressive agents, but these are rarely required for ocular MG.
Patients should also be evaluated for thymoma.
Thymoma should be resected surgically.
Ocular MG without thymoma is not usually treated with thymectomy.
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