Phosphate in early chronic kidney disease - associations with clinical outcomes and a target to reduce cardiovascular risk
Toussainti ND et al. – High phosphate levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been associated with increased all–cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Observational studies have also demonstrated a consistent relationship between serum phosphate in the normal range and all–cause and cardiovascular mortality, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and decline in renal function. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor–23, a phosphaturic hormone, increases very early in the course of CKD and is strongly associated with death and cardiovascular disease, including LVH and vascular calcification.