Effects of Nordic walking on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes, impaired or normal glucose tolerance
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 08/09/2012
Fritz T et al. – Nordic walking improved anthropometric measurements and exercise capacity. However, unsupervised Nordic walking may not provide a sufficient increase in exercise intensity to achieve ultimate health–promoting benefits on the cardiovascular parameters assessed in this study, particularly for those with disturbed glucose regulation.Methods
- The authors included 213 individuals, aged 60 ± 5.3 years, with BMI 30.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2; of these 128 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 35 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 50 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
- Participants were randomized to unaltered physical activity or to five hours per week of Nordic walking with poles, for a four month period.
- Dietary habits were unaltered.
- BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, clinical chemistry, maximal oxygen uptake (peak VO2), and self–reported physical activity (questionnaire) were assessed at the time of inclusion and after four months.
- The participants in the exercise intervention group kept a walking diary.
- In the NGT exercise group, self–reported physical activity increased markedly and body weight (–2.0 ± 3.8 kg), BMI (–0.8 ± 1.4 kg/m2) and waist circumference (–4.9 ± 4.4 cm), (mean ± SD) decreased.
- Exercise power output (12.9 ± 9.9 W) and peak VO2 (2.7 ± 2.8 ml x kg–1 x min–1) increased in the IGT exercise group.
- More cardiovascular risk factors were improved after exercise intervention in people with NGT compared with IGT or T2DM.
- Exercise capacity improved significantly in all three groups among participants at least 80% compliant with the scheduled exercise.