β-Carotene in Golden Rice is as good as β-carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 08/16/2012
Tang G et al. – The β–carotene in Golden Rice (GR) is as effective as pure β–carotene in oil and better than that in spinach at providing vitamin A to children. A bowl of 100 to 150 g cooked GR (50 g dry weight) can provide 60% of the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamin A for 6–8–y–old children.Methods
- Children (n = 68; age 6–8 y) were randomly assigned to consume GR or spinach (both grown in a nutrient solution containing 23 atom% 2H2O) or [2H8] β-carotene in an oil capsule.
- The GR and spinach β-carotene were enriched with deuterium (2H) with the highest abundance molecular mass (M) at Mβ-C+2H10. [13C10]Retinyl acetate in an oil capsule was administered as a reference dose.
- Serum samples collected from subjects were analyzed by using gas chromatography electron-capture negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry for the enrichments of labeled retinol: Mretinol+4 (from [2H8] β-carotene in oil), Mretinol+5 (from GR or spinach [2H10] β-carotene), and Mretinol+10 (from [13C10]retinyl acetate).
- Using the response to the dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.5 mg) as a reference, the results (with the use of AUC of molar enrichment at days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after the labeled doses) showed that the conversions of pure β-carotene (0.5 mg), GR β-carotene (0.6 mg), and spinach β-carotene (1.4 mg) to retinol were 2.0, 2.3, and 7.5 to 1 by weight, respectively.