β-adrenergic receptors, from their discovery and characterization through their manipulation to beneficial clinical application
Wachter SB et al. – β–Adrenergic receptors (β–AR) are central to the overall regulation of cardiac function. From the first proposed receptor/transmitter concept to the latest clinical β–blocker trials β–AR have been shown to play an important role in cardiac disease and heart failure in particular. This study provides a historical perspective, reviews the latest discoveries and beliefs, and discusses the current clinical practices of β–AR and their modulation with their associated guanine–nucleotide regulatory protein/adenylylcyclasesignal transduction pathways.