Smith LM et al. – Maternal depression is associated with neurodevelopmental patterns of increased stress and decreased quality of movement, suggesting maternal depression influences neurodevelopment in infants as young as 1 month.Methods
- Four hundred twelve mother–infant pairs were enrolled (MA = 204) and only biological mothers with custody of their child were included in the current analysis.
- At the 1-month visit (n = 126 MA-exposed; n = 193 MA-unexposed), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was administered, and the NNNS was administered to the infant.
- Exposure was identified by self-report and/or gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in newborn meconium.
- Unexposed subjects were matched, denied amphetamine use, and had negative meconium screens.
- General Linear Models tested the effects of maternal depression and prenatal MA exposure on NNNS, with significance accepted at P < .05.
- The MA group had an increased incidence of depression-positive diagnosis and increased depression scores on the BDI-II.
- After adjusting for covariates, MA exposure was associated with increased arousal and handling scores, and a decreased ability to self-regulate.
- Maternal depression was associated with higher autonomic stress and poorer quality of movement.
- No additional differences were observed in infants whose mothers were both depressed and used MA during pregnancy.