Papanastassiou ID et al. – Balloon kyphoplasty (BKP)/vertebroplasty (VP) provided greater pain relief and fewer subsequent fractures than NSM in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). BKP is marginally favored over VP in disability improvement, and significantly favored in Quality of life improvement. BKP had a lower risk of cement extravasation and resulted in greater kyphosis correction. Despite this analysis being restricted to Level I and II studies, significant heterogeneity suggests that the current literature is delivering inconsistent messages and further trials are needed to delineate confounding variables.