Schwartz CE et al. – This expanded measurement of cognitive reserve captures both the passive and active aspects of the construct, and there is a consistent and substantial relationship with PROs. Individuals with high passive and/or active reserve are healthier and experience higher levels of well–being.Methods
- Cross-sectional data (n=1142) were drawn from the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry, from whom additional survey data were collected.
- Cognitive reserve was measured using the Stern and Sole-Padulles measures, the O*NET occupational classification system, and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire.
- PROs were assessed using generic (SF -12v2, Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Ryff Psychological Well-Being, Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale) and disease-specific (Patient-Determined Disease Steps, Performance Scales) measures.
- Psychometric analysis created unidimensional cognitive reserve subscales.
- Regression models examined relationships between cognitive reserve, demographic characteristics, and PROs.
- The cognitive reserve measures assessed distinct but related constructs.
- Individuals with high cognitive reserve were more likely to report lower levels of perceived disability and perceived cognitive deficits, and higher levels of physical health, mental health, and well-being.
- Both active and passive reserve are associated with better outcomes, independent of demographic factors, and these associations apply to both generic and disease-specific outcomes.