Lifestyle change and high-density lipoprotein change: the US department of veterans affairs normative aging study
Clinical Cardiology, 04/18/2012RahillyTierney C et al. –
Increases in alcohol consumption, maintaining moderate alcohol intake, and maintaining BMI ≤25 kg/m2 were associated with significant 3–year increases in HDL–C. Clin.
Changes in HDL–C (in milligrams/deciliter) over a 3–year period were calculated for each pair of exams.
For each interval of HDL–C change, lifestyle exposures were categorized: participants maintained a stable BMI >25 kg/m2 (reference) or ≤25 kg/m2 since the previous exam, or increased or decreased BMI; participants were actively smoking at both exams (reference), nonsmokers at both exams, quit, or initiated smoking between exams; and participants maintained alcohol intake of <2 (reference) or ≥2 drinks daily since the previous exam, or increased or decreased alcohol intake.
Longitudinal analysis was used to examine the relationship between the lifestyle change categories and 3–year change in HDL–C for each interval, adjusting for comorbidities, lipids, and cholesterol medication.
Participants were followed for approximately 14.3 years.
Increases in HDL–C were associated with maintaining alcohol intake of ≥2 drinks daily (mean HDL–C increase, 0.86; P = 0.02), increasing alcohol intake from <2 to ≥2 drinks daily (mean, 2.53; P = 0.0003), and with maintaining a BMI of ≤25 kg/m2 (mean, 0.71; P = 0.04).
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