A nationwide analysis of risk factors for mortality and time to endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 05/14/2012
Wysocki JD et al. – In multivariate analysis, in–patient mortality in acute variceal haemorrhage (AVH) and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (NVUGIH) increased with age, comorbidity, male gender, and delayed time to endoscopy. Young, healthier men were most likely to receive oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) within 1 day of admission. African Americans were less likely to receive OGD within 1 day of admission and had increased mortality in cases of AVH.Methods
- The authors analysed the United States' Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), for risk factors for mortality and receipt of OGD within 1 day of admission for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
- Risk factors for increased mortality in AVH included: age >60, men, African Americans, comorbidities, insurance type and delayed OGD.
- Risk factors for increased mortality in NVUGIH were similar to AVH, except race which was not significant.
- After correction for factors such as insurance type, comorbidity, hospital location and time to endoscopy, this increased risk of mortality persisted, suggesting that none of these factors was the primary cause of the observed differences.
- For AVH, OGD within 1 day of admission was more likely in men, White Americans, patients aged 18-40 years, privately insured and those with no comorbidities.
- OGD within 1 day of admission in NVUGIH was more likely in men, patients age 40–60, Whites, Hispanics, privately insured and those with a single comorbidity.