Picozzi S et al. – Inverted papilloma could be considered a risk factor for transitional cell carcinoma, and it is clinically prudent to exclude transitional cell cancer when it is diagnosed. Follow–up is needed if the histologic diagnosis is definitive or doubtful. The authors recommend 4–monthly flexible cystoscopy for the first year and then every 6 months for the subsequent 3 years. Routine surveillance of the upper urinary tract in cases of inverted papilloma of the lower part of the urinary tract is not deemed necessary.