High cytokine levels in perforated acute otitis media exsudates containing live bacteria

Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 04/24/2012

A vigorous production of pro–inflammatory cytokines accompany AOM with membrane rupture regardless of causative agent, but the production seems to cease rapidly once the bacteria are killed and fragmented. IL–6 and PGE2, however, remain after bacterial disintegration and may play a role in the resolution phase.

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