Recent advances in search of oral heparin therapeutics
Medicinal Research Reviews, 04/26/2012
Paliwal R et al. - The present review provides complete insight to the research that has been carried out for the development of heparin as oral anticoagulant.
Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) are first choices of clinicians among available anticoagulants.
Currently, these agents are administered either parenterally or subcutaneously, which reduces patient compliance and acceptability.
Oral heparin may serve as an alternative to both parenteral heparin as well as presently available oral anticoagulants such as warfarin.
This review focuses mainly upon recent perspectives in the development of heparin as an oral anticoagulant.
The possibility of its success with special emphasis to nanotechnological approaches has been elaborated.
Important strategies such as the use of penetration enhancers, the development of lipid conjugates of heparin, and the incorporation of heparin in polymeric matrix systems have been discussed.
Additionally, introductory information on biological activities, physiochemical aspects, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of heparin is summarized.
A brief comparison of UFH and LMWH is also included for reader's benefit.
Informative discussion on clinical trials with the successes and limitations of oral heparin formulations is also presented.