Antagonist-mediated down-regulation of toll-like receptors increases the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Arthritis Research & Therapy, 04/20/2012

Prednisolone and Toll–like receptor (TLR) antagonist (hydroxychloroquine) may down–regulate protein levels of TLR7 and TLR9 in lupus patients, thereby decreasing the innate immune response against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Upon infection, HPV further down–regulate TLR7 and 9 levels for viral persistence. Furthermore, reduction of nucleic acid–sensing TLRs 7, 8 and 9 in carcinogenic HPVs ensures that the expression of inducible pro–inflammatory cytokines is minimized to prevent the expression of antiviral ISGs (ISG15 and Mx–1) on a biologically relevant antiviral response.

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