Tsao YT et al. – Identification and differentiation of staphylococcal species in a timely manner would allow us to intervene more aggressively at an earlier stage to prevent unfavorable outcomes. Clinicians should never consider the isolation of S. lugdunensis as contamination. In selected individuals, therapeutic abstention may be preferable to exposing patients to a high risk of S. lugdunensis CIED endocarditis due to re–manipulation of the pacing system. The prognostic value of NT–pro–BNP warrants further investigations.