The Latest Clinical Articles in Infectious Disease

1Associations of common variants in the BST2 region with HIV-1 acquisition in African American and European American people who inject drugsAIDS, March 31, 2015  Clinical Article
2Virologic response following combined ledipasvir and sofosbuvir administration in patients with HCV genotype 1 and HIV co-infectionJAMA, March 31, 2015  Clinical Article  Evidence Based Medicine
3Ombitasvir, paritaprevir co-dosed with ritonavir, dasabuvir, and ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients co-infected with HIV-1 a randomized trialJAMA, March 31, 2015  Clinical Article  Evidence Based Medicine
4Longitudinal genetic characterization reveals that cell proliferation maintains a persistent HIV type 1 DNA pool during effective HIV therapyThe Journal of Infectious Diseases, March 31, 2015  Clinical Article
5Interleukin-28B gene non-TT allele strongly predicts treatment failure for genotype 1 infected chronic hepatitis C patients with advanced fibrosis: A case control studyBMC Infectious Diseases, March 31, 2015  Full Text  Clinical Article
6Emerging respiratory tract viral infectionsCurrent Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, March 31, 2015  Review Article
7Risk of cancer among HIV-infected patients from a population-based nested case–control study: implications for cancer preventionBMC Cancer, March 31, 2015  Full Text  Clinical Article
8Molecular detection of genes related to biofilm formation in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from clinical settings Journal of Medical Microbiology, March 31, 2015  Clinical Article
9Effects of erythromycin on the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm expression in two clinical Staphylococcus capitis subspecies and a functional analysis of Ica proteins in S. capitis Journal of Medical Microbiology, March 31, 2015  Clinical Article
10Analysis of the effects of cigarette smoke on staphylococcal virulence phenotypesInfection and Immunity, March 31, 2015  Clinical Article
1Study may explain low blood oxygen levels for cystic fibrosis patients with infected lungsSt. Michael's Hospital, March 31, 2015
2Drinking raw milk dramatically increases risk for foodborne illness, analysis findsJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, March 31, 2015
3FDA warns against combination of hepatitis C treatment and antiarrhythmic drugAmerican College of Cardiology News, March 31, 2015
4Blood thinning drug helps in understanding a natural HIV barrierUniversity of East Anglia News, March 31, 2015
5Malaria-infected cells produce odors attractive to mosquitoesAmerican Society for Microbiology News, March 31, 2015
6FDA approves treatment for inhalation anthraxFDA Press Announcements, March 31, 2015
7Ebola test vaccines appear safe in Phase 2 Liberian clinical trialNIH News, March 31, 2015
8NIH study finds no evidence of accelerated Ebola virus evolution in West AfricaNIH News, March 31, 2015
9HIV can spread early, evolve in patients' brainsNIH News, March 31, 2015
10The American Academy of Microbiology releases new report titled "Harnessing the power of microbes as therapeutics: Bugs as drugs"American Society for Microbiology News, March 31, 2015

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Hospital readmission rate in patients discharged on parenteral antibiotics

As reported in Clinical Infectious Diseases, the hospital readmission rate for patients (n=782) discharged on parenteral antibiotics was 26%. The mean patient age was 58 years. The leading diagnoses were bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The indications for readmission included non-infection related (30%), worsening symptoms (29%), and new infections (19%). The ORs for readmission factors were as follows: each decade increase in age, 1.09; aminoglycoside use, 2.33; resistant organism, 1.57; and number of hospital discharges in prior 12 months, 1.20.

Intermittent ?-lactam bolus therapy less effective than prolonged infusion

Based on a meta-analysis (n=29 studies [2206 patients]) published in the Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, intermittent β-lactam therapy was less effective than prolonged infusion with respect to mortality rate (RR = 0.66) and clinical success (RR = 1.12).

Pre-treatment with EPA decreases incidence of IFN-?-induced depression

As reported in Biological Psychiatry, pre-treatment of HCV-infected patients (n=162) with EPA for 2 weeks resulted in a decreased incidence of IFN-α-induced depression at 24 weeks compared to placebo (10% vs. 30%), and a delayed onset of depression (12.0 weeks vs. 5.3 weeks).

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Clinical Pearls

Clinical Pearl from Smartest DocDas neue Antibiotikum Delafloxacin scheint bei komplizierten Haut- und Hautanhangsinfektionen genauso effektiv zu sein wie Tigecyclin.

Clinical Pearl from Smartest DocPCR assays may complement culture techniques for diagnosing infective endocarditis in explanted heart valves.

Clinical Pearl from Smartest DocDie akute bakterielle Sinusitis ist eine häufige Komplikation von viralen Infektionen der oberen Atemwege.

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