Association of dietary fat intakes with risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study

International Journal of Cancer, 04/24/2012

O'Doherty MG et al. – The authors found null associations between the dietary fat intakes with esophageal or gastric cancer risk; although a protective effect of polyunsaturated fat intake was seen for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in subjects with a normal body mass index (BMI).

Methods

  • From 1995-1996, dietary intake data was reported by 494,978 participants of the NIH-AARP cohort.
  • The 630 EAC, 215 ESCC, 454 gastric cardia and 501 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas accrued to the cohort.
  • Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the dietary fat intakes, whilst adjusting for potential confounders.

Results

  • Although apparent associations were observed in energy-adjusted models, multivariate adjustment attenuated results to null [e.g., EAC energy adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.66 (1.27-2.18) p for trend <0.01; EAC multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.17 (0.84-1.64) p for trend=0.58].
  • Similar patterns were also observed for fat subtypes [e.g., EAC saturated fat, energy adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.37-2.33) p for trend <0.01; EAC saturated fat, multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) 1.27 (0.91-1.78) p for trend=0.28].
  • However, in multivariate models an inverse association for polyunsaturated fat (continuous) was seen for EAC in subjects with a body mass index (BMI) in the normal range (18.5-<25kg/m2) [HR (95% CI) 0.76 (0.63-0.92)], that was not present in overweight subjects [HR (95% CI) 1.04 (0.96-1.14)], or in unstratified analysis [HR (95% CI) 0.97 (0.90-1.05)]. p for interaction=0.02.

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