Renal tubular dysfunction during long-term adefovir or tenofovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics,  Clinical Article

Gara N et al. – Renal tubular dysfunction develops in 15% of patients treated with adefovir or tenofovir for 2–9 years and is partially reversible with change to other antivirals. Monitoring for serum phosphate, creatinine and urinalysis is prudent during long–term adefovir and tenofovir therapy.

Methods
  • A total of 51 patients being treated at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health were studied.
  • Diagnosis of RTD required de novo appearance of at least three of five features: hypophosphataemia, hypouricaemia, serum creatinine elevation, proteinuria or glucosuria.

Results
  • Among 51 patients treated for 1-10 (mean 7.4) years with adefovir (n=42), tenofovir (n=4) or adefovir followed by tenofovir (n=5), 7 (14%) developed RTD.
  • Time to onset ranged from 22 to 94 (mean 49) months with an estimated 10-year cumulative rate of 15%.
  • All seven had low urinary percent maximal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (<82%).
  • Patients with RTD were older (58 vs. 44 years; P=0.01) and had lower baseline glomerular filtration rates (82 vs. 97 cc/min; P = 0.08) compared to those without; but did not differ in other features.
  • Six patients with RTD were switched to entecavir, all subsequently had improvements in serum phosphate (2.0-3.0 mg/dL), creatinine (1.6-1.1 mg/dL), uric acid (2.7-3.8 mg/dL) and proteinuria.

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