Prevalence and risk factors for depression and anxiety among outpatient migraineurs in mainland China

The Journal of Headache and Pain, 04/06/2012

These findings can help clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression in order to improve migraine management.


  • A cross–sectional study was conducted consecutively at the headache clinic.
  • Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD–II).
  • Demographic characteristics and clinical features were collected by headache questionnaire.
  • Anxiety and depression symptoms about migraineurs were assessed using HADS.
  • Several questionnaires were simultaneously used to evaluate patients with depressive disorder including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale–17 (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and HADS.
  • Pearson correlation analysis was applied to test the validity of HADS.
  • 176 outpatients with migraine (81.8 % female) were included.
  • Overall, 17.6 and 38.1 % participants had depression and anxiety, respectively.
  • Possible risk factors for depression in migraineurs included headache intensity of first onset of migraine, migraine with presymptom, migraine with family history and migraine disability.
  • The possible risk factors for anxiety included fixed attack time of headache in one day and poor sleeping, and age represented a protective factor for anxiety.


  • The correlation coefficient of HADS–A and HADS–D with HAMA and HAMD was 0.666 and 0.508, respectively (P < 0.01).
  • This study demonstrates that depression and anxiety comorbidity in the mainland Chinese migraineurs are also common, and several risk factors were identified that may provide predictive value.

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