Premature Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The Journal of Pediatrics, 05/23/2012

Aloi M et al. – Premature endothelial dysfunction occurs in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This represents a new challenge in the management of pediatric IBD, leading to prevention strategies of cardiovascular disease.

Methods

  • The authors studied 27 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 25 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (mean age, 15.2 years; mean duration of disease, 48.05 months); 31 subjects served as controls.
  • Demographic data (age, sex, family history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia), traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis (blood pressure, body mass index, active and passive smoking, dyslipidemia), and UC and CD activity indexes (Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index and Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index, respectively) were collected.
  • The IMT of the carotid arteries was measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound, and endothelial function was evaluated by FMD in the brachial artery in response to reactive hyperemia.

Results

  • Compared with controls, patients with CD had significantly greater exposure to passive smoking and had lower body mass index and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values.
  • IMT was significantly higher in patients than controls (P < .0001), and the percentage of FMD was significantly lower in both patients with CD (P < .0001) and patients with UC (P < .01) versus controls. In multivariate analysis, diagnosis of IBD was an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis.

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